Are consciousness-raising groups an effective method for involving men in the feminist movement?
This dissertation seeks to contribute to knowledge of women’s, profeminist men’s and mixed-gender consciousness-raising groups, demonstrating that they provide positive outcomes for their members and that the latter two are an effective means of encouraging men’s involvement in the feminist movement. It argues that many of the established positive outcomes for women group members, such as personal support and education of feminist issues would also apply in the case of profeminist men’s and mixed-gender consciousness-raising groups. This dissertation draws upon a qualitative research study of participants’ opinions and experiences of women’s, profeminist men’s and mixed-gender consciousness-raising groups via the medium of surveys and semi-structured interviews. Through the combination of these methods, the dissertation concludes that opening group membership is likely to encourage men’s participation in the feminist movement because consciousness-raising groups are an effective means of social and political development.
Anderson, N.V., (2009), “What’s in a Label? Judgments of Feminist Men and Feminist Women”, Psychology of Women Quarterly, Volume 33, pp.206-215.
Appleton, J.V., (1995), “Analysing Qualitative Interview Data: Addressing Issues of Validity and Reliability”, Journal of Advanced Nursing, Volume 22, pp.993-997.
Biernacki, P., Waldorf, D., (1981), “Snowball Sampling”, Sociological Methods and Research, Volume 10, pp.141-163.
Booth, A. (1972), “Sex and Social Participation”, American Sociological Review, Volume 37, pp.183-193.
Castillo, A. (2013) ‘The problems with patriarchy’, Accessed online: 20/08/2014, Url: http://theumlaut.com/2013/04/16/the-problems-with-patriarchy/
Cohen, M. (2003), “Women in Groups: The History of Feminist Empowerment” in Cohen, M. and Mullender, A., Gender and Groupwork, (Routledge: Oxfordshire)
Colarelli, S.M., Spranger, J.L., Hechanova, M.R., (2006), “Women, Power and Sex Composition in Small Groups: An Evolutionary Perspective”, Journal of Organisational Behaviour, Volume 27, pp.163-184.
DiCicco-Bloom, B., Crabtree, B.F., (2006), “The Qualitative Research Interview”, Medical Education, Volume 40, pp.314-321.
Egeberg Holmgren, L., Hearn, J. (2009), “Framing Men in Feminism: Theoretical Locations, Local Contexts and Practical Passings in Men’s Gender-Conscious Positionings on Gender Equality and Feminism”, Journal of Gender Studies, Volume 18, 403-418.
Follingstad, D.R., Robinson, E.A., Pugh, M. (1977), “Effects of Consciousness-Raising Groups on Measures of Feminism, Self-Esteem, and Social Desirability”, Journal of Counselling Psychology, Volume 24, pp.223-230.
Hammersley, M, Atkinson, A, (2007), Ethnography: Principles in Practice, (Routledge: London)
Home, A. (1980), “A study of change in Women’s Consciousness-Raising Groups”, Canadian Journal of Social Work Education, Volume 6, pp.7-24.
Huston, K. (1986), “A Critical Assessment of the Efficacy of Women’s Groups”, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, Volume.23, pp.283-290.
Israeli, A.L., Santor, D.A., (2000), “Reviewing Effective Components of Feminist Therapy”, Counselling Psychology Quarterly, Volume 13, pp.233-247.
Kaufman, M. (1994) “Men, Feminism, and Men’s Contradictory Experiences of Power” in Harry Brod and Michael Kaufman, Theorizing Masculinities, (Sage publications: London)
Kravetz, D. Marecek, J. Finn, S.E., (1983), “Factors Influencing Women’s Participation in Consciousness-Raising Groups”, Psychology of Women Quarterly, Volume 7, pp.257-271.
Cohen, M. Mullender, A. (2003), “Introduction” in Cohen, M. and Mullender, A., Gender and Groupwork, (Routledge: Oxfordshire)
Nassi, A.J., Abramowitz, S.I., (1978), “Raising Consciousness about Women’s Groups: Process and Outcome Research”, Psychology of Women Quarterly, Volume 3, pp.139-156.
Nelson, J.J. (1997), “Alternate Locations: Strategies and Concerns in the Canadian Pro-Feminist Men’s Movement”, Thesis Simon Fraser University, pp.i-114.
Pease, B. (2003), “Critical Reflections on Profeminist Practice in Men’s Groups” in Cohen, M. and Mullender, A., Gender and Groupwork, (Routledge: Oxfordshire)
Randolph, B.M., Ross-Valliere, C., (1979) “Consciousness”, The American Journal of Nursing, Volume 79, pp.922-924.
Reeves, S., Kuper, A., Hodges, B.D., (2008), “Qualitative Research: Qualitative Research Methodologies: Ethnography”, British Medical Journal, Volume 377, pp.512-514.
Schacht, P.S., Ewing, D. (1997) “The Many Paths of Feminism: can men travel any of them?” in Journal of Gender Studies, Volume 6, pp.159-176.
Seidler, V.J. (1994), Unreasonable Men: Masculinity and Social Theory, (Routledge: London)
Shorr, S.I., Jason, L.A., (1982) “A Comparison of Men’s and Women’s Consciousness-Raising Groups”, Group, Volume 6, pp.51-55.
Singer, J.B., (2009), “Ethnography”, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Volume 86, pp.191-198.
Smith-Lovin, L. Brody, C., (1989), “Interruptions in Group Discussions: The Effects of Gender and Group Composition”, American Sociological Review, Volume 54, pp.424-435.
Taylor, V. (1989), “Social Movement Continuity: The Women’s Movement in Abeyance”, American Sociological Review, Volume 54, pp.761-775.
Warren, L.W., (1976), “The Therapeutic Status of Consciousness-Raising Groups”, Professional Psychology, Volume 7, pp.132-140.
Weissman, D.M. (2007), “The Personal is Political – and Economic: Rethinking Domestic Violence”, BYU Law Review, Volume 2007, pp.387-450.
West, C., Zimmerman, D.H. (1987), “Doing Gender”, Gender and Society, Volume 1, pp.125-151.
- There are currently no refbacks.