Disability Under Occupation: At the Congruence between Conflict, Religion and Society in Palestine
This study was undertaken on three levels:
First, to locate the perceptions of disability among the disabled in the occupied territories of Palestine, in light of their religious affiliation. Second, to investigate the realities of the disabled within Palestine; and third, to enquire as to whether there had been any differences in the perceptions of disabilities and the realities of those who were injured in conflict, and those who were born with impairment.
The strategies used in the advancement of this study were a hybrid of qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative methods used were: semi-structured interviews, a focus group discussion, and my personal direct observation, as a disabled person within the region. The quantitative component of this study meanwhile, was in the form of purposively sampled questionnaire surveys. It was found during the course of the study that the perception of the disabled within Palestine towards their condition was one of acceptance, with the majority viewing it as the will of Allah, and a strength.
In terms of wider society implications, the position of the disabled was one which was reflective of disability on the general development agenda: a largely neglected stitch in the overall fabric of society. However, there was a perceptible and positive shift in this reality, from neglect, to inclusion - though there was still much more to be done in this regard. Above all, however, the pervading feeling of the disabled within Palestine was that the main disabling aspect of their lives was not their physical or mental conditions, but the occupation itself.
While as regards to the potential dichotomy, it was seen that there was a general agreement that the faith of the conflict-disabled was not challenged by their newly acquired conditions, though there were significant differences between the lived experiences of both groups, with the conflict-disabled enjoying a better status than those who were born with their disability.
Abu AlGhaib, O. (2014) Challenges of Equal Opportunity for Women with Disabilities in Palestine - From Rights to Reality. [Online] Available at: http://www.nhf.no/index.asp?id=69106 [Accessed 9 October 2014].
Al-Aoufi, H., Al.-Zyoud, N., &. Shahmian, N. (2012) Islam and the cultural conceptualisation of disability. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 17(4), pp. 205-219.
Ali, Z., Fazil, Q., Bywaters, P., Wallace, L., &. Singh, G. (2010) Disability, Ethnicity and Childhood: A critical review of research. Disability & Society, 16(7), pp. 949-967.
Barron, T. &. Amerena, P. (2007) Introduction. In: Barron, T. &. Amerena, P., (eds) Disability and Inclusive Development. London: Leonard Cheshire International, pp. 1-20.
Baylies, C. (2010) Disability and the Notion of Human Development: Questions of rights and capabilities. Disability & Society, 17(7), pp. 725-739.
Bazna, S. &. Hatab, T. (2005) Disability in the Qur'an: The Islamic Alternative to defining, viewing and relating disability. Journal of Religion, Disability and Health, 9(1), pp. 5-27.
Beaumont, P. (2014) Palestinian unity government of Fatah and Hamas sworn in. [Online] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jun/02/palestinian-unity-government-sworn-in-fatah-hamas
[Accessed 11 June 2014].
Bickenbach, J.E., Chatterji, S., Badley, E.M., &. Ustun, T.B. (1999) Models of disablement, universalism and the international classification of impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Social Science & Medicine, Volume 48, pp. 1173-1187.
Canawati, R. (2010) Mixed Fortunes of War. [Online] Available at: http://www.disabilitynow.org.uk/article/mixed-fortunes-war
[Accessed 1 June 2014].
Coleridge, P. (2000) Disability and Culture. In: M. &. T. M. Thomas, ed. Selected Readings in Community Based Rehabilitation: Disability and Rehabilitation issues in South Asia. s.l.:Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, pp. 21-38.
Covey, H. (2005) Western Christianity's two historical treatments of people with disabilities or mental illness. The Social Sciences Journal, Volume 42, pp. 107-114.
Crabtree, S. (2006) Family responses to the social inclusion of children with developmental disabilties in the United Arab Emirates. Disability & Society, 22(1), pp. 49-62.
dos Santos-Zingale, M., & McColl, M.A. (2006) Disability and participation in post-conflict situations: the case of Sierra Leone. Disability & Society, 21(3), pp. 243-257.
Florian, V., &. Katz, S. (1983) The Impact of Cultural, Ethnic, and National Variables on Attitudes towards the Disabled in Israel: A Review. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Volume 7, pp. 167-179.
Gething, L. (1985) Perceptions of Disability of Persons with Cerebral Palsy, their Close Relatives and Able-Bodied Persons. Social Science & Medicine, 20(6), pp. 561-565.
Ghai, A. (2009) Disability and the Millenium Development Goals: A Missing Link. Journal of Health Management, 11(2), pp. 279-295.
Ghaly, M. (2010) Islam and Disability: Perspectives in theory and jurisprudence (Kindle version). Oxford: Routledge.
Giacaman, R. (2001) A community of citizens: disability rehabilitation in the Palestinian transition to statehood. Disability and Rehabilitation, 23(14), pp. 639-644.
Grech, S. (2009) Disability, poverty and development: critical reflections on the majority world debate. Disability & Society, 24(6), pp. 771-784.
Grech, S. (2011) Recolonising debates or perpetuated coloniality? Decentring the spaces of disability, development and community in the global South. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(1), pp. 87-100.
Gupta, A., &. Singhal, N. (2004) Positive Perceptions in Parents of Children with Disabilities. Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, 15(1), pp. 22-35.
Harris-White, B. (2003) Staying Poor: Chronic Poverty and Development Policy. Manchester, IDPM.
Helander, E. (1993) Prejudice and Dignity, An Introduction to Community-based rehabilitation. 2nd ed. New York: UNDP.
Ingstad, B. (2001) Disability in the Developing World. In: G. e. a. Albrest, ed. Handbook of Disability Studies. London: Sage.
Islam, Z. (2008) Negotiating identities: the lives of Pakistani and Bangladeshi young disabled people. Disability & Society, 23(1), pp. 41-52.
Jarar, A. (2009) Disability in Palestine: Realities and Perspectives. [Online] Available at: http://archive.thisweekinpalestine.com/details.php?id=2868&ed=173&edid=173
[Accessed 3 June 2014].
Al-Jazeera (2014) Israel bomb hits disabled centre in Gaza. [Online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2014/07/israel-bombs-hit-centre-disabled-gaza-201471274035753506.html
[Accessed 13 July 2014].
Johnson, R.B., Onwuegbuzie, A.J., &. Turner, L.A. (2007) Towards a Definition of Mixed Methods Research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), pp. 112-133.
Kagawa-Singer, M. (1994) World View: Cross-Cultural Views of Disability. Rehabilitation Nursing, Volume 6, pp. 362-365.
Kandel, I., Morad, M., Vardi, G., Press, J., &. Merrick, J. (2004) The Arab Community in Israel Coping with Intellectual and Developmental Disability. The Scientific World Journal, Volume 4, pp. 324-332.
Lang, R. (2001a) The Development and Critique of the Social Model of Disability, Norwich: Overseas Development Group.
Lang, R. (2001b) Understanding Disability from a South Indian Perspective. Winnipeg, Canada, School of Development Studies.
Lawson, J. (2011) Disability as a Cultural Identity. International Studies in Sociology in Education, 11(3), pp. 203-222.
Mactaggert, I. &. Murthy, G. (2013) The Key Informant Child Disability Project in Bangladesh and Pakistan, London: CBM.
MAP-UK, (2014) Interview with Peter Coleridge following visit to Occupied Palestine. [Online] Available at: http://www.map-uk.org/news/archive/post/101-interview-with-peter-coleridge-following-visit-to-occupied-palestine
[Accessed 10 September 2014].
McIntyre, J. (2010) From isolation to disability union leadership - The Electronic Intifada. [Online] Available at: http://electronicintifada.net/content/isolation-disability-union-leadership/8994
[Accessed 28 June 2014].
Meekosha, H. (2011) Decolonising disability: thinking and acting globally. Disability & Society, 26(6), pp. 667-82.
Miles, M. (1995) Disability in an Eastern Religious Context: historical perspectives. Disability & Society, 10(1), pp. 49-70.
Miles, M. (2000) Disability on a Different Model: Glimpses of an Asian heritage. Disability & Society, 15(4), pp. 603-618.
Miles, M. (2010) Formal and informal disability resources for Afghan reconstruction. Third World Quarterly, 23(5), pp. 945-959.
Neuman, W. (1994) Social Science Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Oliver, M. (1990) The Politics of Disablement. London: MacMillan.
Oliver, M. (2013) The social model: a victim of criticism. [Online] Available at: http://www.disabilitynow.org.uk/article/social-model-victim-criticism
[Accessed 17 January 2015].
Onwuegbuzie, A., &. Collins, K.T. (2007) A Typology of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social Science Research. The Qualitative Report, 12(2), pp. 281-316.
Qutteina, M. Ingdal, N., Nilsson, A., Mogen, M.B., &. Skjorten, M. (2012) Mainstreaming Disability in the New Development Paradigm: Evaluation of Norweigen support to promote the rights of persons with disabilities, Oslo: Norad.
Rohwerder, B. (2013) Intellectual disabilities, violent conflict and humanitarian assistance: advocacy of the forgotten. Disability & Society, 28(6), pp. 770-783.
Rose, A. (1997) "Who Causes the Blind to See": Disability and quality of religious life. Disability & Society, 12(3), pp. 395-405.
Russell, M. (2002) What Disability Civil Rights Cannot Do: Employment and political economy. Disability & Society, 17(2), pp. 117-135.
Schuelka, M. (2012) A faith in humanness: disability, religion and development. Disability & Society, 28(4), pp. 500-513.
Shakespeare, T. (1996) Disability, Identity and Difference. In: C. &. M. G. Barnes, ed. Exploring the Divide. Leeds: The Disability Press, pp. 94-113.
Shehadeh, L. (2013a) "This episode was different". [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/bbcmediaaction/posts/This-episode-was-different
[Accessed 1 June 2014].
Shehadeh, L. (2013b) Paralyzed Photographer Highlights Plight of Disabled Palestinians. [Online]
Available at: http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/04/paralyzed-photographer-palestinian-osama-silwadi.html
[Accessed 5 June 2014].
Skrtic, T. (2005) A Political Economy of Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 28(2), pp. 149-155.
Smith, A. (2014) Living with a disability and the occupation. [Online] Available at: https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/articles/middle-east/10662-living-with-a-disability-and-the-occupation
[Accessed 5 July 2014].
Stienstra, D. (2002) DisAbling Globalisation: Rethinking Global Political Economy with a Disability Lens. Global Society, 16(2), pp. 109-121.
Stiker, H.-J. (Translated by Sayers, W.) (1999) A history of disability. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Stone-MacDonald, A. (2012) Cultural Beliefs about Disability in Practice: Experiences at a Special School in Tanzania. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 59(4), pp. 393-407.
UN (1967) Resolution 2253. Geneva: UN General Assembly.
UN (2006a) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. [Online] Available at: http://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/facts.shtml
[Accessed 27 July 2014].
UN (2006b) Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, New York: UN.
UN (2014) United Nations Treaty Collection - Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. [Online] Available at: https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-15&chapter=4〈=en [Accessed 5 July 2014].
UPIAS (1976) Fundamental Principles of Disability. London, UPIAS.
Wadud, S. (1986) Why Islamic Order could not be introduced. Lahore: The Pakistan Times.
Weber, M. (1946) From Max Weber: Essays on Sociology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
WHO (2006) Disability and Rehabilitation WHO Action Plan 2006-2011, Geneva: WHO.
- There are currently no refbacks.